Common Eye Diseases and Surgeries
Due to the global growing tendency to correct refractive errors (i.e., hyperopia, myopia, and astigmatism) without the use of glasses, PhotorefractiveKeratectomy (PRK) can be regarded as a good alternative.
In this method, firstly, the eye is numbed with a topical anesthetic, then the corneal surface layer (corneal epithelium) is removed with a special device and the corneal surface is excised with excimer laser which is repaired within 3-5 days.
This method is associated with mild postoperative pain and takes longer to recover, as compared to smiley and LASIK. In fact, it takes 2-3 months to see normally; however, the patient’s vision is satisfactory just one week after surgery.
This method is safe and effective and is considered the most common method of spectacle removal in the country.
ReLEx SMILE Eye Surgery is one of the newest developments in vision correction procedures and the least aggressive treatment for myopia and astigmatism. In this method, the patient is treated with excision performed on the cornea using VisuMax femtosecond laser system (Zeiss company), and the necessary shape is given to the cornea.
This procedure is suitable for patients with myopia and astigmatism. Furthermore, this method can be applied for the treatment of myopia 0.5-10 and astigmatism up to 5 (the total score should not exceed 12.5).
LASIK is a type of laser eye surgery to correct refractive errors. In this outpatient surgery, two femtosecond and excimer lasers are used for corneal shaping and refractive error correction, and corneal surface vision correction is performed by removing a layer from the anterior surface of the eye.
For most people, LASIK is a long-term alternative to glasses or contact lenses. After this kind of surgery, most patients do not need glasses for many years or to the end of life. The procedure is effective, does not require bandage or stitches, causes slight pain, and the patient usually recovers within 1-3 days after the surgery.
Phakic intraocular lens (PIOL) is a special kind of intraocular lens that is implanted surgically into the eye to correct such diseases as astigmatism, myopia, or hyperopia.
Transparent phakic lenses are surgically placed somewhere between the cornea and the lens, on the iris, or in a space behind it without the removal of eye lenses. These lenses cause spectacle removal.
This method is used as a good alternative to PRK, LASIK for the correction of refractive errors in patients who cannot undergo surgical treatment due to cornea thinness, high eye grade, and other problems. Pterygium is a sun-related eye disease most prevalent in the tropical region among those who are more exposed to the sun. The disease which is a triangular tissue growth on the cornea of the eye is caused by excessive growth of connective tissue and conjunctiva which is easily diagnosed in most cases. Sunlight and genetic factors are involved in this disease. When a pterygium becomes red and irritated, repeated use of artificial tears may relieve the related symptoms. The use of standard sunglasses is also highly recommended. If the pterygium grows enough to cover your cornea and cause vision problems, surgical treatment will be recommended by the ophthalmologist to improve the patient’s vision. Pterygium surgery involves the removal of abnormal tissue from the anterior surface of the eye.
Pterygium is a sun-related eye disease most prevalent in the tropical region among those who are more exposed to the sun. The disease which is a triangular tissue growth on the cornea of the eye is caused by excessive growth of connective tissue and conjunctiva which is easily diagnosed in most cases. Sunlight and genetic factors are involved in this disease.
When a pterygium becomes red and irritated, repeated use of artificial tears may relieve the related symptoms. The use of standard sunglasses is also highly recommended. If the pterygium grows enough to cover your cornea and cause vision problems, surgical treatment will be recommended by the ophthalmologist to improve the patient’s vision.
Pterygium surgery involves the removal of abnormal tissue from the anterior surface of the eye.
Keratoconus occurs when your cornea(the clear, dome-shaped front surface of your eye) thins and gradually bulges outward into a cone shape. A cone-shaped cornea causes blurred vision and may cause sensitivity to light and glare.
The available treatments of this disease include hard contact lenses, intracorneal ring implantation, and corneal transplantation depending on the stage and severity of the disease. This disease progresses in a way that dramatically increases myopia and astigmatism. In this stage, vision cannot be corrected with glasses, rather hybrid lenses are used in these cases.
Intracorneal ring implantation is another surgical treatment of keratoconus used in mild to moderate conditions where the patient cannot tolerate the contact lens.
Other new therapies include CXL or Collagen Cross-Linking using ultraviolet UV-A and riboflavin. This method is recommended in most patients since it stops or slows the course of the disease.
However, about 10-20% of the patients with keratoconus require transplantation.
Cataract is an eye disease initiates with clouding of the eye’s natural lens and as the lens becomes darker and the lens blurs, vision is impaired. The most prevalent symptoms of cataract include clouded, blurred or dim vision, increasing difficulty with vision at night, sensitivity to light and glare, need for brighter light for reading and other activities, seeing “halos” around lights, and frequent changes in eyeglass or contact lens prescription. The disease can affect both eyes but may occur unevenly, causing a difference in visual acuity between two eyes.
For the surgical treatment of this disease, the eye’s natural lens is removed and it is replaced by the artificial lens. This surgery is performed under local anesthesia and the corneal incision does not require stitches. The implanted lens is permanent and cannot be sensed or felt in any way by the patient.
In addition, Premium lenses can also correct astigmatism and create close vision. By implanting multifocal lenses, people will largely stop needing glasses.
In corneal transplantation (keratoplasty), a damaged or diseased cornea is replaced by donated healthy corneal tissue. The graft is taken from a recently dead individual with no known diseases or other factors that may affect the chance of survival of the donated tissue or the health of the recipient.
The most common reason for performing a keratoplasty include improving vision in cases where corneal cloudiness causes blurred vision, corneal hole repair to protect intraocular structures, treatment of eye pain due to corneal disease or swelling, eradication of Medication-resistant corneal infection, corneal swelling after cataract surgery, keratoconus, and hereditary diseases that cause corneal cloudiness or edema.
The chance of corneal transplant rejection is slim, compared to other transplants; therefore, the overall success rate of a corneal transplant is very high.